Chemical weapons and is (go to science), poison gas by toxic chemicals such as are used in order to give the damage to the human, animal or plant weapons thing. The Chemical Weapons Convention includes precursors of toxic chemicals and ammunition and equipment that emits them. When toxic substances of biological origin such as ricin and bacterial toxins are used, they are often classified as biological weapons rather than chemical weapons .
Chemical weapons are the “C” (Chemical) of NBC weapons and are one of the weapons of mass destruction alongside nuclear weapons (N) and biological weapons (B) . Weapons known as poison gas are the mainstream, and mustard gas (Iperit), sarin and VX gas are famous. At ambient temperature and pressure gas not only poison gas weapon is, solid or liquid while others (including a high viscosity). The latter includes not only the type that is highly volatile and diffuses as a gas, but also the type that exhibits an effect in a mist state in which a liquid is sprayed.
The scope of what is called a chemical weapon varies slightly by age and treaty. Even those with low risk of death and no risk of sequelae, such as chloroacetophenone (CN gas), which is currently used as police tear gas , may be included in chemical weapons if used for military purposes (so - called non-lethal weapons ). In the Chemical Weapons Convention , Article 2 defines chemical weapons, and other types of substances subject to verification measures are listed in the Annex. According to the Japanese government's interpretation of the treaty, diphenylcyanoarsine or diphenylchloroarsine (both formerly known as the Japanese Army "Red Agent") and CN gas (also "Green Agent") with low lethality are chemical weapons . 
Modern chemical weapons appeared in World War I and were heavily used. Since then, however , practical use has been limited due to the ban treaty taking effect, the difficulty of operation due to the characteristics described below , and the strong criticism of international public opinion.
A chemical cluster warhead for the US Army MGR-1 rocket. Fill the submunition with sarin.
Early chemical weapons used harmful substances that caused chemical reactions that attack human tissues, such as the respiratory tract , eyes and skin . In the late 1930s, nervous poisons ( nerve gas ) such as sarin were developed. Nervous poisons can be fatal, even in small quantities, because they render the nervous system unable to transmit and destroy them. The prognosis is poor even if they survive, and sequelae are likely to remain in motor and sensory functions. There are also drugs that destroy the metabolic function of the human body and gradually erode the human body. The prognosis of these weapons, which are not immediate but lethal, is extremely poor. Some weapons medicines have a low mortality rate but a risk of serious sequelae.
As mentioned at the beginning, many poisonous gases are liquid or solid at room temperature and normal pressure . It is effective as a weapon by dispersing it in gaseous, mist, or fine powder form, or scattered in the impact of an explosion by packing it in a shell or bomb . Missiles and rockets of the warhead , and even land mines and grenades may also be used to fill in. In World War I, a method was also used in which chlorine and the like were brought to the battlefield at room temperature in a cylinder and released to enemy forces.
Apart from the biological and chemical weapons as the modern weapons of mass destruction, painted a poison derived from plants and animals poison dart has been also used since ancient times to the war as well as hunting. In the past, there has been research on applying poison to blades, but there is no practical use in modern warfare (special guns with poison in bullets were used to assassinate Georgy Markov ).
Weapons have the following "advantages".
- Inadequate protective equipment targets can result in large numbers of casualties at once. (Weapons of mass destruction)
- It is technically easier to develop and produce than nuclear weapons.
- High psychological effect, giving fear to enemy soldiers.
- Low explosive usage, less likely to compete with conventional ammunition production.
- Depending on the type, the killing effect is persistent, and the enemy's path of attack can be continuously limited.
On the other hand, there are also some disadvantages, as described below, that the operation of weapons is limited.
- The effect is difficult to anticipate, depending on the weather and wind direction, and may damage allies and non-combatants ( civilians ).
- Nowadays infantry on the front carries gas masks , and vehicles are usually equipped with anti-NBC weapons, which is less effective.
- Mass production requires some level of chemical industry. Especially around the First World War, the number of countries capable of mass production was limited.
- Victims' obstacles remain.
- There is environmental damage. Especially persistent.
- Not only the retaliation by weapons of mass destruction such as chemical weapons, could lead to condemnation of the military intervention and international public opinion by high third countries (for example, the US military by Syria of Shairato Air Force Base attack ).
Modern regular warfare weapons are difficult to operate, not only because of legal restrictions, but also technically. A well-protected goal, such as an army equipped with chemical protective gear and armored vehicles, or a tightly sealed base facility, can hinder action and activity, but has limited effectiveness. In some countries , such as Israel, gas masks and evacuation shelters are also found in residential and urban areas .
The most effective and often used method of attack against the most inadequately armed forces and civilians in many countries. For example, Iraq of Saddam Hussein regime Kurds is to have used in the massacre, Syria unrest there is a suspicion that the Assad regime forces were also used. In other words, it can be said that the weapon has little effect on well-equipped troops and is easily damaged by civilians and irregular forces.
Chemical weapons, also known as the "poor nuclear weapons",  are feared for their production and use by countries with limited technology and funding to develop nuclear weapons, or by terrorist organizations .
Lethal and non-lethal
Chemical weapons may be classified as fatal and nonfatal  . However, even if it is called non-lethal, the classification is relative because it does not literally mean that there is no risk of death but because of concentration and exposure time. For example, in the Moscow Theater occupation case , 129 people, including hostages, were killed as a result of the use of KOLOKOL-1 , a non-lethal gas , a neutralizing gas .
Taking the effect and toxicity into consideration, it is classified into the following types.
Immediate and late effects
Chemical weapons can be immediate or delayed.
- Immediate effect: killing purpose (eg sarin , VX gas )
- Slow effect: for environmental pollution purposes (eg mustard gas )
The immediate effects are primarily intended to kill enemy soldiers immediately on the battlefield. In general, it is excellent in terms of killing ability, but the time from release to the environment to decomposition is short, and there is not much effect of sustaining the damage. Many of the nerve gases are relevant.
Slow-acting agents are generally inferior to the immediate-acting agents in terms of killing ability, but take longer to decompose in the environment and thus have the effect of contaminating the area of long-term application. In some cases, the fact of the contamination cannot be easily discerned by the victim, so that the contamination can be expected to expand, and the effect will be produced after the expansion. In the case of battlefields, indiscriminate attacks on supply routes and agglomeration areas or urban areas and agricultural lands relatively behind, from various aspects such as supply capacity, command ability, industrial economy, politics, medical burden, etc.  used for the purpose of abatement . However, front lines may be used like mustard gas in World War I.
An ultra-slow chemical weapon can take effect several to ten or more years or decades after contact.
The origin of the use of chemical weapons depends on the definition of chemical weapons. Taking the broad definition, old pepper intended to use the smoke If you want a bright has also appeared in the Chinese book of the bill. Chemical weapons for the first time in human history has been used as a weapon a more killing power, the Peloponnesian War with Sparta army has used sulfurous acid gas are said to be.
In the modern era, more potent toxicants were developed due to the development of science and technology and the discovery of compounds. Napoleonic Wars Sometimes, bayonet to hydrogen cyanide to paint the (hydrocyanic acid) of Prussia has been proposed for the military, adopted was not  . Under these circumstances , there were concerns about the full-scale use of chemical weapons, and in 1899 a declaration was issued to prohibit poison gas. Sulfur gas was used in the Russo-Japanese War.
For police use, tear gas such as ethyl bromide acetate was commercialized in France .
World War I
Use of chemical weapons by the French military in Belgium. (Jan. 1917)
It was in World War I that chemical weapons made their power widely known . 1914 UK , France and Germany in each country, chloroacetone or ethyl iodoacetate such tear gas began deployment, combat use of sporadic tear gas at the latest March 1915 was performed. As the front stalemate in the trench warfare, chemical weapons began to attract hope as a means of breakthrough.
Among them, Haber process is known in the development of the Fritz Haber Germany, which was home to the poison gas will be ahead significantly in other countries in the development, 1915 January 31, 2008 , the German army is the Eastern Front of Borimou (Bolimow ) Conducted the first large-scale poison gas emission against the Russian army. In addition , the use of chlorine gas against the French army on April 22 in the Ieper Front made the threat of chemical weapons worldwide known. The battle released 150-300 tonnes of chlorine packed into 5,700 cylinders, causing the French troops to fall into a local devastating state. The British also used chlorine gas in September of the same year. In December of the same year the German army phosgene began to use in the same way the gas, came to be also used diphosgene improved. These were taken into account in the direction of the wind, and were taken from the opponent's base upwind.
Soldiers who inhaled these gases died if exposed to high concentrations of gas, of course, destroyed the tissues of the whole body by a chemical reaction with chlorine, but even low concentrations did not cause severe respiratory damage and death to be, from the fact that suffering for a long time symptoms fallen into difficulty breathing, non- humanitarian dreaded as specific weapons.
Soon the widespread use of gas masks led to the development of chemical weapons that not only act by suction but also directly harm the skin . The mustard gas , a type of erosion agent that acts on the skin, was put into practical use on July 12, 1917 , on the Ieper front. Mustard gas is highly penetrable and difficult to protect, and was first feared as " Iperit " because of its initial use . Britain, France, and the United States also proceeded with the introduction of mustard gas, and Adolf Hitler , who was on the front line as a German soldier at the time, was allegedly injured by mustard gas.
A chemical projectile being prepared by the German army on the Western Front. With a structure similar to a simplified mortar, the enemy camp is filled with a container filled with chemicals. (1916)
Operational methods have also improved, and chemical-filled chemical cannonballs and poison-gas-distributing weapons such as the British Reevens projectile have been developed to replace the cylinder release method .  As a countermeasure against gas masks, a tactic was used to mix gas masks of a kind that easily penetrate the filter , making it difficult to install gas masks . He reportedly used non-toxic soot tactics to demoralize enemy troops.
About 30 chemical agents were developed during World War I. The total amount of chemicals produced in the United States, Germany, France and France is 198,000 tons for chlorine, 199,000 tons for phosgene, and 11,000 tons for mustard gas. Among them, Germany, where the chemical industry was well developed, accounted for a high percentage, producing 50% of chlorine, 90% of phosgene and 70% of mustard gas in Germany. Of these, 124,000 tons (66 million shots such as chemical ammunition) were used in combat. According to the UK Department of Defense, 1.3 million people were killed or injured by chemical weapons, of which 90,000 were killed . 
From the 1920s ChoHisashi惕 , 曹錕 , Feng Yuxiang , ZHANG ZUOLIN et al Beiyang Army Everyone leader our, had expressed an interest in chemical weapons  . It is reported that Zhang Sulin has contracted with Witte of Germany to build a chemical weapons manufacturing facility in Shenyang , and has hired Russian and German chemical technicians to oversee the production of mustard gas , phosgene and chlorine gas. and it is  . In addition, ChoHisashi惕has received a relatively small number of gas-generating bombs in August 1921  . However, Wu Peifu accused chemical weapons of being inhuman .  There have been no confirmed reports of chemical warfare during conflicts between the warlords, and no evidence of Soviet Union support for the KMT and the Communist Party in training and equipping chemical weapons.  . Possibility that the knowledge of chemical weapons had been put in hand from the cooperation in the chemical weapons field of the Soviet Union and Germany from the 1920s to the first half of the 1930s is high  .
The 1925 Geneva Protocol was signed, but chemical weapons use is forbidden in the war, production, development, and held because they were not prohibited  , It should be noted that even chemical weapons used in the battle between the State did not go away . During the Second Ethiopian War , the Italian Army used mustard gas against the Ethiopian army. The most military effect is not much, in the first place was not be expected . Italy side of the Ethiopian side Dum Dum bullets are to determine the use of chemical weapons in retaliation for the use of . In 1930, in order to suppress the Kirisha Incident , on November 3, Taiwan Commander Chotaro Watanabe addressed the Minister of the Army, Kazunari Ugaki, with a request for permission and permission to issue and use erosive drops and mountain shells. The Ministry of Army responded that it could not snoop on foreign or other reasons. Therefore, the Taiwan Army ordered the Governor-General of Taiwan to produce a prototype of `` special ammunition '' (a triple bullet that generates cyanogen gas and tearing gas), and on November 8, at least three shots were dropped from aircraft. The effect was unknown. Then, on November 14, 300 rounds of teardrops for the cannon (Midori, Kobo) arrived at Keelung in the Hengchun Maru , of which 100 were used in the total attack on the 18th, Evaluation of military effects is unclear  .
Second World War
A publicity poster from Britain during World War II calling for vigilance against chemical weapons.
In "Reference for War Infantry Education" published in 1938, there is a statement that suggests the use of "○ gas" and incendiary bombs with regard to the sweeping procedure of Chinese nations.  days in May 1939, two years after the war the war, Chief of the General Staff, Prince Kan'in Kotohito continent finger No. 452 is issued in the name of, northern China of the North China district troops to the commander, "heard Research on the use of agents was ordered .  At the same time treatment of Banpan was Koze for such as "concealment of use" an instruction to is reduced as much as possible damage to the "non-China forces"  . In July 1939, a detailed report of a battle in which the Poison Gas Unit belonging to the North China Army bombarded Chinese opponents with about 230 "red" shells and about 50 "kii" shells during Operation Jindong in July 1939  .
From 1940 to 1945, Chiang Kai-shek and the KMT operated a chemical warfare center in Naxi under the direct command of Yu Dawei , and the headquarters of the elite First Chemical Strike Division were also located there.  . In addition, Kunming is in there is a chemical headquarters under the command of John Middleton Brigadier General  . In 1943, the first regiment Bihar was educated by the officers of the chemical warfare troops of the US military in Ramugaru training center  . In 1945, the third regiment was operated as a chemical mortars soldiers troops  . Of these chemical warfare troops Kokkyo civil war , but the fate of the latter is unknown, the Japanese army chemical ammunition that was handed over to the KMT from chemical weapons and the United States, which was abandoned, fell into the hands of the Communist Party in 1949  .
Reputational damage that "poison gas is used" lowers morale in the army due to reputational damage.In addition, due to the development of technology for dispersing poison gas by aircraft , bombs and intercontinental ballistic missiles , we are in non-combat areas The fear of chemical weapons spread to civilians and became a social problem.
Chemical warfare research continued after the Second World War, even during the Cold War . Nerve gases such as VX gas based on German technology were developed. Especially during the red hunt , concerns about invasion by chemical weapons and guerrilla-like activities appeared, causing great social unrest. They were also warned of being a "poor nuclear weapon," which is easier to develop than a nuclear weapon.
During the Vietnam War , the United States struggled with the South Vietnamese Liberation National Front , which was good at fighting in the forest, and conducted large-scale spraying of defoliants in parallel with burning the forest with incendiary bombs . It is said that dioxins were mixed in the defoliants , causing widespread contamination and causing abnormal birth problems throughout Vietnam .
Iran-Iraq war in, Iraq army is, Iran military and domestic Kurds using nerve gas and mustard gas to the district, many Kurdish residents to death Halabja chemical attack has occurred. The Gulf War also warned that Iraqi forces would use ballistic ammunition with Israeli weapons against Israel and others, but they did not. Others have seen the use of chemical weapons in conflict areas, such as by the Egyptian military during the civil war in North Yemen . Iraq's chemical weapons have been the issue of disarmament in Iraq, triggering the war in Iraq.
Firefighters detecting toxic gas
With the passage of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and other factors, the use of chemical weapons as a means of resolving disputes between nations has become quite restrictive, but terrorists are concerned about their use. It is also feared that the former Eastern nations may have illegally released chemical weapons (as well as nuclear and biological weapons) possessed by the military during a state change, such as the collapse of the Soviet Union .
In 1994, the Matsumoto Salin case , the world's first indiscriminate terrorist attack on chemical weapons, was launched in Japan by Aum Shinrikyo . The incident killed 7 people and injured 660. Following the incident, the cult again suffered a catastrophe with 12 dead and 5,510 injured in 1995, after another large-scale sarin gas terrorist attack on the Tokyo Metro .
In response to this case, Japan has tightened regulations under domestic laws , including the Act on the Prevention of Personal Injury by Sarin and Others, and the SDF has decided to respond to poison gas pollution within the scope of conventional disaster rescue duties. Some countries have begun preparing for chemical weapons in response to the terrorist problems that are getting worse each year.
Research and deployment of non-lethal weapons, such as those used in riot control and combat against terrorism , in broad chemical weapons are still ongoing. As a practical example, in the Moscow Theater occupation case , Russian security forces used KOLOKOL-1 , called neutralizing gas . However, as a result, 129 people, including hostages, died from poisoning, raising doubts about the non-lethal nature of KOLOKOL-1. The Okama bomb is known to have ended only with planning .
In 2013, in the Syrian civil war , chemical weapons such as sarin were used , and the United States and the United States , which worked as part of the Assad administration, suggested military intervention, and in October Syria joined the Chemical Weapons Convention and in October Agreed to complete disposal. In response, the Nobel Peace Prize of the year was awarded to a banned chemical weapons organization for its research and destruction activities . But in 2017 , U.S. forces launched a cruise missile attack on Syriat Air Force Base in Syria, alleging that the Assad administration again used chemical weapons in 2017 .
In 2014, Islamic militants, ISIL, were reported to have used chlorine gas in combat in Iraq .
Means of protection
An air defense exercise in Berlin in 1932 that assumed the use of chemical weapons. He is hardened on a gas mask and sprays antidote.
Means of protection against chemical weapons include gas poisoning to prevent the effects of chemical agents, detection to quickly detect the use of chemical weapons, and anti-poisoning / detoxification (decontamination) to remove contamination by chemical weapons. Poisonous gas is rarely used if both opponents have technology or equipment that opposes poisonous gas, but if the opponent's equipment is inferior and there is no fear of retaliation, mercilessly May be used. Therefore, today's military is indispensable for anti-chemical equipment.
First, gas masks to prevent inhalation and chemical protective clothing to combat erosion agents have been developed as anti-poisoning measures . However, since protective clothing has poor ventilation, restricts breathing, and makes the wearer tired, the U.S. Army has a mission-oriented protective attitude (MOPP), so it is necessary to respond to chemical weapons from preparation to wearing. It has become. In addition, some protective masks are for animal weapons such as war horses . Many modern armored fighting vehicles are equipped with certain hermeticity and air purifying filters, and are provided with NBC protection, including measures against chemical weapons. It is important to wash used vehicles and clothes in order to prevent the spread of contamination due to the attached chemical agent.
Since many chemical weapons are hard to see, a variety of detectors have been studied. A typical detection kit currently used in western countries is the M256A1 , which tests with a detection paper. The most primitive detection means uses a small bird such as canary , which is sensitive to poisons . Those having a peculiar odor, such as mustard gas, can reduce the damage if the human senses the odor and immediately wears a gas proof device. As an advanced detection method, there are cases where chemical reconnaissance vehicles such as chemical protection vehicles in Japan are deployed.
On the battlefield, it may be necessary to act in contaminated areas, so anti-poisoning measures may be used to remove or mitigate the pollution and allow the passage of troops. Specifically, depending on the type of chemical agent used, it is necessary to apply bleaching powder to mustard gas that has settled in the soil, or to dig the ground and cover the ground for the passage with clean earth and sand. There are methods. Sarin can be hydrolyzed by reacting it with water . ( See also #Chemical Weapons Disposal )
These protective measures are not limited to military use, but are also used as part of civil defense . In particular, gas masks were deployed to citizens during World War II, when they were warned of their use in cities. In some cases, there has been an increase in vigilance against NBC terrorism, and some civilian countermeasures have been taken assuming the use of chemical weapons as terrorism.
They may use backed chemical weapons to neutralize the protection itself. For this purpose, several types of gas masks may be prepared. (Example: From the gas-proof surface commonly seen, there is a backpack cylinder type, an air purification type through a septic tank, etc.)
Regulation of law
History of legal regulations
1899 in The Hague was held in universal peace conference in the international regulation of chemical weapons by the first of the clear has been determined. At the meeting, Article 23 of the Regulations of the Hague Army War Convention stipulated the ban on the use of poisonous substances (No. 1) and weapons, projectiles and substances that cause unnecessary pain (No. 5), and the use of choking and poisonous gases. The Declaration on the Prohibition of Poison Gas , which prohibits its use, has also been adopted. The latter banned the use of projectiles for the sole purpose of disseminating asphyxiating and toxic gases, but there is room for interpretation that chemical weapons released from cylinders are allowed. There was a problem. Despite these treaties, World War I did not prevent countries from using chemical weapons in large quantities.
Based on the dire consequences of chemical warfare of the First World War, 1925 to the " Geneva Protocol " ( "Protocol on the prohibition of the use in war of suffocating gas, toxic gas or gases and bacteriological means similar to these ") Was concluded. The treaty banned the use of chemical weapons in war, but did not prohibit possession or research. The Protocol came into effect in 1928.
In 1968, after World War II, the United Nations Disarmament Commission agenda banned chemical weapons, and the following year, a report submitted by UN Secretary-General U Thant , `` Chemical and Bacterial Weapons and the Impact of Their Use, '' was issued. The UN General Assembly adopted a resolution banning chemical and biological weapons. The Biological Weapons Convention, which banned the possession of biological weapons in 1972, includes provisions for bargaining efforts to ban the production and storage of chemical weapons (Article 9). Since then Geneva Disarmament Committee bilateral treaty between the consultations and the United States and the Soviet Union in is performed, and finally in 1992 , "the Chemical Weapons Convention by", also multilateral treaty for military purposes of tenure and research as well as use It was regulated by. In 1997, the Chemical Weapons Bureau (OPCW) was established to monitor the implementation of the Convention .
The treaty required that countries possessing chemical weapons, in principle, destroy them by 2007. The Russian Federation declared its disposal abolished on September 27, 2017 (Russia focused on the development and production of chemical weapons during the former Soviet era, and at one time was about 40,000 tons, the largest holding country in the world). United States has extended the deadline because of the lack of resources, waste at the time 2017 is incomplete  .
In addition, in Japan, chemical terrorism by Aum Shinrikyo has triggered chemical terrorism prevention in accordance with domestic laws such as the Act on the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons and the Restriction of Specific Substances, and the Act on the Prevention of Personal Injury by Saline and Others .
Under the Chemical Weapons Convention , the use of chemical weapons for law enforcement purposes, including the suppression of riots in the country, is permitted under Article 2.9 of the Convention . It should generally only apply to non-lethal substances, but there is no clear definition of substances that are permitted or prohibited. In addition, even if it is non-lethal, it can be life-threatening depending on the amount of exposure, and in fact in Russia the use of KOLOKOL-1 called `` neutralizing gas '' in the Moscow theater occupation case involved 129 deaths including hostages All criminals have died.
Since there is no regulation on the use of personal protection, the use of substances banned by the Convention, such as tear spray , is left to the judicial decision of each country. As a matter of fact, it is not uncommon for commercial products to use banned substances such as pepper spray (OC gas).
Disposal of chemical weapons
Due to the characteristics of chemical weapons, it is necessary to carefully treat the disposal of chemical weapons that have been abolished due to expiration of use or treaty regulations.
It is said that mainly reactive chemicals break down into harmless substances in a short period of time due to the action of ultraviolet rays and the like contained in sunlight , but some of them cause long-term contamination and are not as powerful as nuclear weapons. Some of them worsen the surrounding environment. Strong for detoxification treatment acidic or strongly alkaline or reacted with chemicals, energized such strong UV irradiation or electric current, is detoxified by encouraging decomposition or chemical. Alternatively, a method of injecting a large amount of water and diluting it to a safe concentration may be used, but simply diluting it may generate a large amount of harmful sewage, which is not suitable for decontamination of a wide area soil. However, since sarin is detoxified by hydrolysis , spraying with water is effective.
In the past, burial in the soil and marine dumping were often performed, but there are cases where this is still a problem.
In Japan, Kanagawa Prefecture samukawa , Chiba Prefecture Narashino in, other than the bare pavement and planting the land, and the like are, showed the precautions to ensure the safety at the time of land modified safety manual (land modified Guidelines) Was distributed to landowners and construction companies, and the Ministry of the Environment informed that poison gas was buried . The Ministry of the Environment has announced other places where poison gas is likely to be buried. If you find a buried substance that appears to be a chemical weapon, you need to consult an expert to prevent further damage.
In addition, the 2007 version of White Paper on the Environment According to the Kanagawa Prefecture of Hiratsuka in, of some areas groundwater and soil for organic arsenic compounds from has been detected, as a result of carrying out such as surface soil survey, organic arsenic compound and the original body of Possible white lumps and contaminated soil were found. The Hiratsuka, once the Imperial Japanese Navy's chemical warfare research institutes were present  .  There have been several other discoveries, including reports to chemical ban organizations . It should be noted, Ibaraki Prefecture Kamisu in, with an organic arsenic compound groundwater pollution and health was announced that those not derived from the old army by the investigation of what was suspected not been reported to damage the Imperial Japanese Army abandoned weapons  .
It is believed that the former Japanese Army abandoned chemical weapons in Chinese territory at the end of the Pacific War, and it was decided to pay a large amount to dispose of the former Japanese Army's abandoned chemical weapons. However, there are speculations that a considerable number of other weapons were abandoned by the Chinese and Soviet Unions, which has been causing controversy and that there was no obligation to dispose of weapons handed over to the Chinese when the Japanese defeat. Is also seen. In 1999, Japan and China exchanged a Memorandum of Understanding between the Governments of Japan and the People's Republic of China regarding the disposal of Japanese abandoned chemical weapons in China. (For details , see the issue of abandoned chemical weapons )
Novel based on chemical weapons
- ^ "Reds and greens are classified as toxic chemicals under the Convention, that is, chemical weapons, because their chemical effects on vital activities can temporarily cause serious damage to humans or animals. This is why we have judged this. ”( 168th Parliamentary Foreign Affairs Committee, No. 3, Western Government Interviewee )
- ^ a b c d e For Safe Disposal of Abandoned Chemical Weapons Science Council of Japan July 23, 2001
- ^ Kenjiro Kato, "How the Self-Defense Forces Want to Know Now" Nihon Jitsugyo Publisher , 2004 ISBN 4534036957
- ^ Kobayashi, p. 69.
- ^ a b Kobayashi, p. 74.
- ^ a b c d e f Eric Croddy, "China's Role in the Chemical and Biological Disarmament Regimes", The Nonproliferation Review, Spring 2002, p. 17.
- ^ Akinori Haruyama, "Kirisha Incident and Operation of Poison Gas (Taiwan)", Encyclopedia of World War Crimes, Bungeishunju, August 10, 2002, ISBN 4-16-358560-5 , p. 64.
- ^ " Wartime infantry education of reference - the National Diet Library digital collection ". Dl.Ndl.Go.Jp . 6 May 30, 2019 View.
- ^ a b “ Poison gas squad, official record Use report during Japan-China war, first confirmation ” (Japanese). Mainichi Shimbun . Retrieved July 8, 2019 .
- ^ “ Detailed information on the former Army poison gas, confirmed Record of troops used in northern China ” (Japanese). Tokyo Shimbun TOKYO Web . Retrieved July 8, 2019 .
- ^ a b c d e Eric Croddy, "China's Role in the Chemical and Biological Disarmament Regimes", The Nonproliferation Review, Spring 2002, p. 18.
- ^ 原文：Declaration on the Use of Projectiles the Object of Which is the Diffusion of Asphyxiating or Deleterious Gases; July 29, 1899
- ^ Russia criticizes unapproved rice for abolition of chemical weapons Nihon Keizai ShimbunSeptember 28, 2017 ( article distributed by Kyodo News )
- ^ Monument of Naval Research Institute
- ^ Current situation of the decommissioning of aging chemical weapons by the former Japanese military in Japan- Ministry of Foreign Affairs, April 2004.
- ^ Kamisu City HP
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- Anthony Tou, Introduction to Chemical and Biological Weapons: Basic Knowledge, Biological Effects, Treatment and Policy, Jiho, 2001.
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- Jonathan B. Tucker, "The World History of the Nervous Gas War: From World War I to Al-Qaida", Misuzu Shobo, 2008.